### How Fuzzy Logic is Applied

Fuzzy logic usually uses IF/THEN rules, or constructs that are equivalent, such as fuzzy associative matrices.

Rules are usually expressed in the form:

IF variable IS set THEN action

For example, an extremely simple temperature regulator that uses a fan might look like this:

IF temperature IS very cold THEN stop fan

IF temperature IS cold THEN turn down fan

IF temperature IS normal THEN maintain level

IF temperature IS hot THEN speed up fan

Notice there is no "ELSE".

All of the rules are evaluated, because the temperature might be "cold" and "normal" at the same time to differing degrees.

The AND, OR, and NOT operators of Boolean logic exist in fuzzy logic, usually defined as the minimum, maximum, and complement; when they are defined this way, they are called the Zadeh operators, because they were first defined as such in Zadeh's original papers. So for the fuzzy variables x and y:

NOT x = (1 - truth(x))

x AND y = minimum(truth(x), truth(y))

x OR y = maximum(truth(x), truth(y))

There are also other operators, more linguistic in nature, called hedges that can be applied. These are generally adverbs such as "very", or "somewhat", which modify the meaning of a set using a mathematical formula.

Human beings make decisions based on rules. Even though, we may not be aware of it, all the decisions we make are based on computer like if-then statements. If the weather is fine, then we may decide to go out. If the forecast says the weather will be bad today, but fine tomorrow, then we make a decision not to go today, and postpone it till tomorrow. Rules associate ideas and relate one event to another.

Fuzzy machines which always tend to mimics the behavior of man work the same way. Only this time the decision and the means of choosing that decision are replaced by fuzzy sets and the rules are replaced by fuzzy rules. Fuzzy rules also operate using a series of if-then statements. For instance, X then A, if y then b, where A and B are all sets of X and Y. Fuzzy rules define fuzzy patches, which is the key idea in fuzzy logic.

A machine is made smarter using a concept designed by Bart Kosko called the Fuzzy Approximation Theorem (FAT). The FAT theorem generally states a finite number of patches can cover a curve as seen in the figure below. If the patches are large, then the rules are sloppy. If the patches are small then the rules are fine.

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